Table 1 Characteristics of the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study cohort by fasting insulin levels

Fasting insulin groups: By insulin level
mIU/L, n, %
Low (<7.2), 381 (14.8)Medium (7.2–23.0), 1,756 (68.4)High (>23.0), 431 (16.8)p*
Results are age-adjusted mean (SE) unless otherwise specified.
* p Value for age-adjusted test for trend for the general linear regression model or the logistic regression model.
† Variable reported as measured at exam 4.
‡ Among type II diabetic participants the variable was available only for cases newly detected at exam 4.
§ Variable reported as measured at mid-life.
∥ Weight change from mid-life to late-life.
¶ Among nondemented only.
SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; ABI = ankle brachial index; CASI = Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument; VaD = vascular dementia; AD = Alzheimer disease.
Sociodemographic variables
    Age, y77.4 (0.2)77.0 (0.1)76.2 (0.2)<0.01
    Education, y10.8 (0.2)10.9 (0.1)10.7 (0.1)0.71
Measures of glucose metabolism
    Fasting glucose, mmol/L5.7 (0.08)6.2 (0.04)7.2 (0.07)<0.01
    2 h glucose, mmol/L8.3 (0.26)9.6 (0.12)12.6 (0.25)<0.01
    Type II diabetes, %25.532.056.7<0.01
    Impaired fasting glucose, %10.521.427.7<0.01
    Impaired glucose tolerance, %21.926.020.90.66
    2 h insulin, mIU/L71.6 (5.3)112.6 (2.4)184.8 (5.3)<0.01
Cardiovascular related variables
    Total cholesterol, mmol/L§188.3 (1.6)193.4 (0.8)189.1 (1.5)0.72
    SBP, mm Hg§126.2 (0.8)130.5 (0.4)135.1 (0.8)<0.01
    DBP, mm Hg§79.2 (0.5)82.4 (0.2)85.6 (0.5)<0.01
    Antihypertension treatment, %30.041.656.6<0.01
    ABI1.12 (0.02)1.12 (0.01)1.15 (0.02)0.16
    Weight change, %−6.1 (0.5)−2.4 (0.2)0.5 (0.4)<0.01
    ApoE ε4, %20.318.317.90.38
    Stroke, %5.16.38.30.06
    Coronary heart disease, %11.015.219.60.01
    Alcohol, g/day§13.2 (0.8)10.2 (0.8)10.5 (0.9)0.02
    Never smoked, %§40.135.335.90.15
Measures of brain function
    Depression index3.8 (0.1)3.5 (0.1)3.8 (0.2)0.85
    CASI exam 584.1 (0.5)83.7 (0.2)82.2 (0.5)<0.01
    CASI exam 680.3 (0.7)81.5 (0.3)80.8 (0.7)0.70
    CASI change between 4th and 5th exam, %−3.40 (0.48)3.90 (0.22)−4.74 (0.45)0.04
    CASI change between 5th and 6th exam, %−5.87 (1.19)−4.14 (0.54)−1.36 (1.11)<0.01
    Incident dementia, %10.97.59.70.02
    Incident VaD, %2.41.51.60.21
    Incident AD, %5.74.45.80.24