Table 2.

Characteristics of the first biennial cohort (n = 1,604) by decline status

CharacteristicDecline*No declinep Value
* Decline means ≥ −5.15-CASI-point (out of 100) change over a 2-year follow-up period vs. a <−5.15-point change.
CASI = Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument.
Age at baseline, y, n, mean (SD)144, 74.0 (6.5)1,455, 71.2 (5.2)0.0001
Baseline CASI score, n, mean (SD)144, 89.8 (8.8)1,455, 90.7 (6.6)0.21
Education, y, n, mean (SD)141, 12.5 (2.6)1,439, 13.1 (2.9)0.01
Follow-up, wk, n, mean (SD)144, 106.6 (15.6)1,455, 103.5 (12.3)0.02
Pack-years of smoking, n, mean (SD)130, 18.0 (29.3)1,400, 14.9 (23.6)0.25
Olfaction score, 0–12 points, n, mean (SD)144, 8.4 (2.8)1,455, 9.4 (2.4)0.0001
Sex, n (%)
Men69, 47.9638, 43.8
Women75, 52.1817, 56.20.35
Income <$15,000/y, n (%)
Yes37, 32.5254, 20.0
No77, 67.51,019, 80.00.002
Apolipoprotein E-ε4, n (%)
2 alleles3, 3.38, 0.8
1 allele21, 22.8195, 19.1
0 alleles68, 73.9816, 80.10.045
Smoking, n (%)
Current smoker17, 12.996, 6.8
Past smoker55, 41.7589, 41.7
Nonsmoker60, 45.5727, 51.50.031
Olfactory status, n (%)
Anosmic28, 19.4140, 9.6
Microsmic72, 50.0672, 46.2
Normosmic44, 30.6643, 44.20.001
Worsening sense of smell in adult years
Yes32, 24.6316, 23.8
No98, 75.41,011, 76.20.838