Table 3.

Comparison of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART), quantitative sensory tests (QST), and skin biopsies in 32 patients

Test and siten (%)Volumes (μL) (QSART), JND (QST), or IENF density (biopsy)RangeMean normal value*
Values <5th and >95th percentile were considered abnormal.
* These normative data are provided as a reference range. For any individual to be considered abnormal the patient had to be above the 95th percentile for age and sex.18
† Significantly different from proximal lower leg (p < 0.009), distal lower leg (p < 0.04), foot (p < 0.048).
‡ Not significantly different from each other.
§ Data from each individual patient were compared to the database of normative values provided by the manufacturer of CASE IV (W.R. Electronics).
JND = just noticeable differences; IENF = intraepidermal nerve fiber.
QSART (abnormal = total any site 19/32 [59%])
Forearm6 (19)1.83 ± 1.940.05–5.9Men, 2.67; women, 1.15
Proximal lower leg14 (44)0.45 ± 0.540.00–2.1Men, 2.32–1.97; women, 1.48
Distal lower leg9 (28)0.74 ± 0.820.00–3.8Men, 2.17–1.75; women, 1.26–0.68
Foot9 (28)0.78 ± 0.970.00–3.8Men, 2.17–1.75; women, 1.05–0.84
QST (abnormal = total any site [cold detection or vibration] 23/32 [72%])
Hand/cold detection20 (62.5)12.07 ± 4.64§
Hand/vibration11 (34.3)11.27 ± 3.64§
Foot/cold detection14 (44.0)14.80 ± 5.46§
Foot/vibration10 (31.2)19.04 ± 4.53§
Skin biopsies (abnormal = 28/32 [87.5%])
Distal leg, 10 cm above
Lateral malleolus
Age <60 y21 (65.5)10.32 ± 6.23/mmEL<60 y 33.06 ± 7.90/mmEL (5th percentile 20.06)
Age >60 y7 (22.0)5.14 ± 5.13/mmEL>60 y 20.16 ± 5.09/mmEL (5th percentile 11.80)