Table 1.

Characteristics of the four groups of patients*

CharacteristicsSTN1GPi1STN2GPi2
Values are n or mean (SD).
* Two groups with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus; STN1 and STN2; two groups with stimulation of the internal globus pallidus: GPi1 and GPi2.
UPDRS = Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; “off” = without levodopa for 12 hours; “on” = under the maximum effect of levodopa; DBS−/+ = deep brain stimulator turned off/on.
No. of patients488155
Age, y55.7 (7.5)52.5 (6.5)53.5 (9.7)55.2 (10.2)
Level of education, y12.4 (3.8)13.0 (3.9)11.1 (2.7)9.6 (0.9)
Men/women27/216/210/53/2
Disease duration, y15.0 (4.9)16.3 (3.4)14.2 (5.5)12.6 (2.7)
UPDRS-III (“off”)55.4 (12.8)55.4 (8.5)56.1 (17.9)41.6 (14.1)
UPDRS-III (“on”)13.8 (8.2)20.4 (8.4)14.9 (8.1)14.0 (7.5)
UPDRS-III (“off”; DBS−)44.7 (15.0)49.8 (14.8)48.4 (19.7)35.8 (18.7)
UPDRS-III (“off”; DBS+)18.1 (11.8)37.1 (13.3)19.4 (20.4)27.0 (12.5)
Levodopa before surgery1110 (570)744 (264)1063 (496)850 (514)
Levodopa after surgery348 (292)873 (478)465 (405)725 (308)