Table 1.

Diffusion parameters for different sets of ROI in the NAWM and in the gray matter

Anatomic regionFA, median (range)VR, median (range)MD (× 10−3 mm2/s), median (range)
Control subjectsPatientsControl subjectsPatientsControl subjectsPatients
Significantly different from controls, Mann–Whitney U test:
* p < 0.05;
† p < 0.01;
‡ p < 0.001;
§ p < 0.0001.
NAWM = normal-appearing white matter; FA = fractional anisotropy; VR = volume ratio; MD = mean diffusivity.
NAWM
Anterior limb of internal capsule0.64 (0.57–0.70)0.61* (0.45–0.70)0.54 (0.45–0.6)0.58* (0.42–0.78)0.82 (0.71–0.96)0.79 (0.73–1)
Genu of internal capsule0.68 (0.61–0.67)0.67 (0.53–0.75)0.49 (0.31–0.6)0.51 (0.37–0.68)0.79 (0.64–0.93)0.79 (0.67–1)
Posterior limb of internal capsule0.68 (0.57–0.8)0.68 (0.57–0.83)0.44 (0.26–0.65)0.47 (0.21–0.63)0.77 (0.54–0.9)0.71 (0.6–0.9)
Frontal lobe0.59 (0.51–0.66)0.54§ (0.42–0.68)0.59 (0.46–0.68)0.69§ (0.5–0.78)>0.84 (0.77–0.9)0.90 (0.72–1.4)
Temporal lobe0.60 (0.5–0.75)0.54§ (0.37–0.67)0.58 (0.37–0.74)0.67 (0.44–0.84)0.80 (0.71–0.9)0.83 (0.7–0.99)
Occipital lobe0.58 (0.46–0.71)0.53 (0.37–0.72)0.62 (0.46–0.77)0.68* (0.32–0.820.82 (0.7–0.93)0.79 (0.62–0.95)
Parietal lobe0.64 (0.53–0.72)0.58 (0.41–0.7)0.54 (0.34–0.69)0.61 (0.42–0.81)0.82 (0.72–0.97)0.81 (0.67–0.99)
Genu of corpus callosum0.77 (0.62–0.88)0.76 (0.53–0.9)0.34 (0.15–0.6)0.34 (0.11–0.65)0.82 (0.64–1)0.84 (0.63–1.4)
Splenium of corpus callosum0.73 (0.63–0.890.66 (0.54–0.83)0.37 (0.13–0.56)0.49 (0.23–0.68)0.96 (0.75–1.1)1.1 (0.76–1.6)
Cerebral peduncle0.70 (0.64–0.8)0.68* (0.52–0.81)0.42 (0.2–0.6)0.46* (0.27–0.610.84 (0.67–0.97)0.87 (0.53–1.7)
Middle cerebellar peduncle0.68 (0.57–0.73)0.64 (0.34–0.76)0.45 (0.27–0.65)0.49 (0.27–0.87)0.87 (0.6–1)0.88 (0.74–1.2)
Supratentorial NAWM regions0.65 (0.6–0.68)0.60§ (0.56–0.64)0.50 (0.44–0.57)0.55§ (0.49–0.63)0.81 (0.76–0.9)0.82 (0.75–0.98)
Infratentorial NAWM regions0.69 (0.62–0.76)0.66* (0.43–0.75)0.43 (0.3–0.6)0.49 (0.31–0.64)0.86 (0.71–0.97)0.88 (0.75–1.3)
All NAWM regions0.65 (0.61–0.69)0.62§ (0.56–0.66)0.50 (0.42–0.55)0.54§ (0.48–0.62)0.82 (0.77–0.91)0.84 (0.78–0.98)
Gray matter
Caudate nucleus (head)0.32 (0.20–0.44)0.36* (0.23–0.53)0.89 (0.80–0.95)0.86* (0.7–0.94)0.83 (0.83–1.1)0.83 (0.65–0.98)
Putamen0.29 (0.21–0.43)0.35 (0.18–0.51)0.90 (0.79–0.95)0.87 (0.69–0.96)0.79 (0.65–1)0.75* (0.66–0.88)
Thalamus (pulvinar)0.29 (0.24–0.40)0.36 (0.21–0.51)0.91 (0.8–0.94)0.84 (0.69–0.95)0.84 (0.72–1)0.82 (0.62–0.99)
Hippocampus0.29 (0.21–0.44)0.29 (0.16–0.49)0.91 (0.75–0.95)0.89 (0.72–0.97)0.94 (0.72–1.1)0.95 (0.65–1.4)
Cerebellar gray matter0.24 (0.16–0.35)0.28 (0.14–0.44)0.93 (0.86–0.97)0.91 (0.78–0.98)0.85 (0.75–1.1)0.90 (0.71–1.3)
All basal ganglia regions0.31 (0.24–0.42)0.35 (0.24–0.46)0.9 (0.81–0.94)0.86 (0.75–0.93)0.82 (0.7–1)0.80 (0.66–0.92)