Table 1.

Possible mechanisms for obtaining neuroprotection

Antioxidant agents
Free radical scavengers (vitamin E, glutathione, spin-trap agents)
Glutathione
Iron chelators
Agents that block glutamate-mediated toxicity
Excitatory amino acid antagonists
Glutamate-release inhibitors (e.g., Riluzole)
Glutamate reuptake enhancers
Nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors
Calcium channel blockers
Mitochondrial bioenergetics
Creatine
Co-enzyme Q10
Ginkgo biloba
Nicotinamide
Carnitine
Anti-inflammatory agents
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., COX-2 inhibitors)
Steroids
Estrogens
Trophic factors
GDNF
Immunophillins
Transplant strategies
Human fetal nigral transplantation
Porcine fetal nigral transplantation
Anti-apoptotic agents
Desmethylselegiline, TCH-346
Caspase inhibitors
Agents that maintain closure of mitochondrial pore (e.g., cyclosporine)
Agents that prevent protein accumulation and aggregation