Table 1.

Brain death survey in 80 nations

Continent/countryLawGuidelineApnea testNo. of physiciansObservation time, hConfirmatory testReference no.
* Eight US states only; time within parentheses indicates observation time required in conditions due to anoxia.
† Observation time can be shortened or eliminated if one confirmatory test is positive for brain death.
‡ China resumed control of Hong Kong in 1997.
PCO2 = target PCO2 defined (50 or 60 mmHg); A = absent criterion or guideline; DV = disconnection from ventilator only; N = neurologist; MD = medical doctor; P = present; A = absent; LAW = legal standard of organ donation.
North America
    United StatesPPPCO22*6Optional6, 12
    CanadaPPPCO216Optional13
Caribbean
    BarbadosAAAAAOptional
    CubaAPPCO226 (24)Optional
    JamaicaAPA212Mandatory
    Trinidad and TobagoAPPCO22AOptional
Central and South America
    ArgentinaPPDVO16Mandatory15
    BrazilPPDVO16Optional
    ChilePPDVO2AMandatory16
    ColumbiaPPA2 (N)AOptional17
    Costa RicaPPPCO2124Optional
    EcuadorAAAAAOptional
    El SalvadorAPA16 (24)Mandatory
    GuatemalaAAAAANot known
    HondurasAAAAANot known
    MexicoPPAA24Mandatory18
    ParaguayAPPCO2124Optional
    UruguayPPPCO21AOptional
    VenezuelaPPPCO22 (N)12Optional19
Europe
    AustriaPPDVO112Optional5
    BelgiumPPDVO3AOptional5
    CyprusPPDVO2AOptional
    Czech RepublicAPPCO22AMandatory20
    DenmarkPPDVO22 (24)Optional5
    EstoniaPPPCO2112Optional
    FinlandPPDVO1AOptional21
    FrancePPPCO22AMandatory22
    GermanyPPPCO2212Optional23
    GreecePPDVO36Optional24
    HungaryPPPCO2112 (72)Mandatory25
    IrelandPPPCO22AOptional26
    ItalyPPPCO216 (24)Mandatory27
    LuxembourgPPPCO21AMandatory5
    MaltaPPPCO216Optional
    NetherlandsPPPCO21AMandatory28
    NorwayPPDVOA24Mandatory29
    PolandPPDVO13Optional5
    PortugalPPPCO212–24Optional30
    RomaniaPPPCO226Mandatory
    RussiaPPPCO226 (24)Optional37