Table 1.

Patient characteristics and laryngoscopic and EMG findings

Patient no./sex/age, yDuration of disease, yClinical findingsStridorDysphagiaMovements of vocal cords (laryngoscopy)Laryngeal EMG (TA and PCA)*Pharyngeal EMG (CP)
ExtrapyramidalPyramidalCerebellarAutonomic
* Simultaneous recording from the right TA and PCA muscles during quiet breathing.
+ = mild; ++ = moderate; +++ = severe; CP = cricopharyngeal muscle; EMG = electromyogram; PCA = posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; TA = thyroarytenoid muscle.
1/M/675+++++++++AbsentMinimal bilaterallyProlonged bursts of tonic activity in both musclesNot done
2/F/607+++++++++++++++Absent on the right, minimal on the leftPersistent tonic activity in both musclesPersistent tonic activity during swallowing
3/F/648++Absent++++++++++Minimal bilaterallyProlonged bursts of tonic activity in both musclesPersistent tonic activity during swallowing
4/M/603+++++++++AbsentMinimal bilaterallyProlonged bursts of tonic activity in both musclesNormal
5/F/5910+++Absent+++++AbsentSlightly reduced bilaterallyProlonged bursts of tonic activity in both musclesNormal
6/F/584++Absent++++++Slightly reduced bilaterallyProlonged bursts of tonic activity in both musclesNormal
7/M/613+Absent+++AbsentAbsentNormalNormalNormal
8/M/732+Absent+++Absent+NormalBursts of EMG activity during inspiration in TAPersistent tonic activity during swallowing
9/M/576++++++Absent++NormalNormalPersistent tonic activity during swallowing
10/M/619+++++++++++++Minimal bilaterallyPersistent tonic activity in both musclesNot done