Table 2Unadjusted (observed) primary and secondary outcome measures

ParameterPlaceboOpioidTCA
BaselineMaintenanceBaselineMaintenanceBaselineMaintenance
Values are expressed as mean (SD).
* No. of symbols substituted.
† No. of words recalled.
TCA = tricyclic antidepressant.
Pain intensity, 0 to 106.2 (2.0)6.0 (2.0)6.5 (1.9)4.4 (2.4)6.3 (2.4)5.1 (2.3)
Pain relief, 0 to 100%11.2 (19.8)38.2 (32.2)31.9 (30.4)
Symbol substitution*44.9 (12.9)44.1 (14.3)44.1 (14.4)46.3 (13.4)43.5 (14.3)42.2 (15.7)
Verbal learning22.3 (6.0)23.0 (6.0)21.4 (6.3)22.8 (6.3)21.9 (5.7)21.8 (6.0)
Pegboard-dominant, s90.6 (31.1)91.4 (24.5)98.9 (34.0)91.6 (22.6)93.3 (30.0)94.6 (31.4)
Pegboard-nondominant, s100.7 (36.5)100.5 (37.4)110.1 (43.7)98.3 (20.8)106.0 (35.0)114.0 (52.3)
Sleep, 0 to 63.2 (1.8)2.9 (1.9)2.7 (2.1)2.5 (1.7)3.2 (2.0)2.5 (1.9)
Activity level, 0 to 62.2 (1.0)2.3 (1.0)2.3 (1.0)2.3 (1.1)2.2 (1.0)2.3 (1.1)
Interference, 0 to 62.7 (1.5)2.5 (1.5)2.5 (1.7)2.3 (1.5)2.7 (1.7)2.5 (1.6)
Depression, 0 to 6310.0 (7.8)9.9 (7.9)9.4 (6.8)12.1 (8.9)10.2 (7.4)10.0 (7.6)
Vigor, 0 to 288.8 (6.9)9.5 (5.9)7.7 (7.1)9.0 (6.8)9.5 (6.6)8.7 (6.8)
Fatigue, 0 to 287.7 (6.8)9.1 (7.6)9.7 (7.1)7.7 (6.5)8.3 (6.6)7.6 (6.7)
Confusion, 0 to 285.7 (4.4)5.7 (4.1)6.9 (4.3)6.1 (4.9)6.5 (4.5)5.7 (4.2)