Table 3Percent frequency of patient reports of side effects during the different treatment periods

Side effectsPlaceboOpioidTCA
TitrationMaintenanceTitrationMaintenanceTitrationMaintenance
* p < 0.05,
p = 0.001, compared to placebo;
p < 0.01, opioid vs TCA.
TCA = tricyclic antidepressant.
Constipation11230*30117
Nausea743919*62
Dizziness701318 1317
Drowsiness14030*18117
Loss of appetite2217*522
Dry mouth348713*6