Table 2. Diagnostic considerations in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis or MRI white matter abnormalities

Age-related white matter changes
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Behçet disease
Bacterial infections (syphilis, Lyme disease)
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy
Cervical spondylosis or stenosis
HIV infection
Human T-lymphotrophic virus I/II
Ischemic optic neuropathy (arteritic and nonarteritic)
Leukodystrophies (e.g., adrenoleukodystrophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy)
Neoplasms (e.g., lymphoma, glioma, meningioma)
Sjögren syndrome
Stroke and ischemic cerebrovascular disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndromes, and related collagen vascular disorders
Unidentified bright objects
Vascular malformations
Vasculitis (primary CNS or other)
Vitamin B12 deficiency