Table 1 Baseline age-adjusted characteristics of participants in NHS (1980) and NHS II (1991) according to quintiles of total vitamin D intake

CharacteristicsNHSNHS II
Quintile of total vitamin D intakeQuintile of total vitamin D intake
1234512345
NHS = Nurses’ Health Study.
Ever smoker, %62575454563736343434
Born in north tier, %40414444423034373838
Use of multivitamins, %67134897816307096
Mean daily food intake
    Skim/low-fat milk, servings/d0.10.30.71.21.00.20.71.31.41.5
    Whole milk, servings/d0.10.20.40.40.30.00.10.10.10.1
    Fish, servings/d0.160.160.170.190.180.060.100.120.130.14
Mean daily nutrient intake (with supplements)
    Calcium, mg4846137639048996878471,0281,1621,374
    Vitamin A, IU10,28910,51511,03413,47619,6699,39710,54011,56513,83018,584
    Vitamin E, mg353437641632224305298
    Folate, μg229247270381705286325369540866
    Vitamin C, mg216220226306571171187210284439
    Vitamin B1, mg1.61.71.92.65.62.02.22.63.87.5
    Vitamin B2, mg2.12.32.63.56.52.12.43.04.38.3
    Vitamin B6, mg1.82.02.02.96.14.75.15.99.216.6
    Vitamin B12, μg5.35.96.69.317.75.86.88.010.817.9
    Zinc, mg6.16.26.57.39.61112131724