Table 3 Preventive therapies for migraine

TherapiesClassnEfficacyAdverse effectsRef.
Antiepileptic medications
    Divalproex sodiumOccasional to frequent
        15–45 mg/kg/d (7–16 y)IV4276% had >50% reduction headache frequency37
        500–1,000 mg/d (9–17 y)IV10p = 038
    Topiramate 12.5–225 mg (8–15 y)IV75p < 0.001Occasional to frequent39
    Levetiracetam 250–500 mg (3–17 y)IV19p < 0.0001Occasional to frequent40
Antidepressant medications
    Trazodone 1 mg/kg/d (7–18 y)II35NSOccasional to frequent35
    Pizotifen 1–1.5 mg (7–14 y)I47NSOccasional to frequent36
    Tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline
        1 mg/kg (9–15 y)IV19280%Occasional to frequent34
        10 mg (3–12 y)IV7389%28
Antihistamines
    Cyproheptadine 4 mg (3–12 y)IV3083%Occasional to frequent28
Calcium channel blockers
    Flunarizine 5 mg (5–11 y)I63p < 0.001Occasional42
        5 mg (10–13 y)IV1275% had 75–100% reduction headache frequency43
    Nimodipine 10–20 mg (7–18 y)I37NSOccasional41
Antihypertensive agents
    Propranolol
        80 mg (3–12 y)II3981%Occasional to frequent30
        6–120 mg (7–16 y)II28NS29
        3 mg/kg/d (6–12 y)II28NS31
    Clonidine
        0.07–0.1 mg (7–14 y)II43NSOccasional to frequent32
        0.025–0.05 mg (≤15 y)II5732%: 34%—NS33