Table 1 Baseline characteristics by glucose group

CharacteristicsNormal glucose, n = 6,463Impaired fasting glucose, n = 297Diabetes, n = 267p Value*
Values are mean ± SD or n (%).
* p Values for categorical data are from chi-square tests except for history of stroke, which is from Fisher exact test due to small cell counts; p values for the continuous variables age and BMI are from analysis of variance, and all other p values for the continuous variables are from a Kruskal-Wallis test due to skewness.
GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale.
Age, y66.1 ± 7.168.0 ± 6.868.4 ± 6.1<0.001
Education, y11.9 ± 3.811.0 ± 3.710.7 ± 4.3<0.001
Current smoker1,133 (17.8)46 (15.7)39 (14.8)0.318
White6,278 (97.1)286 (96.3)242 (90.6)<0.001
History of myocardial infarction131 (2.0)7 (2.4)12 (4.5)0.023
History of stroke30 (0.5)2 (0.7)2 (0.8)0.461
GDS score ≥ 6142 (4.4)10 (9.8)11 (8.6)0.004
Past hormone replacement therapy1,877 (29.1)77 (25.9)62 (23.4)0.071
Body mass index (BMI), kg/m225.1 ± 3.926.7 ± 4.227.4 ± 4.9<0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L5.0 ± 0.46.4 ± 0.28.48 ± 2.7<0.001