Table 3 Predictors of death or tracheostomy in an ALS clinic population (n = 250)*

VariableHazard ratio (95% CI)p Value
* All variables were included in the same Cox proportional hazards model.
ALSFRSr = Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale–revised.
Age at baseline, y1.02 (1.01–1.04)0.01
Male vs female0.85 (0.53–1.35)0.5
Symptom duration, y0.74 (0.63–0.87)<0.001
Total ALSFRSr score0.93 (0.90–0.96)<0.001
Forced vital capacity, % predicted0.99 (0.98–1.01)0.3
Riluzole use, ever vs never0.85 (0.54–1.33)0.5
Site of symptom onset
    Upper extremity1.00 (Reference)
    Lower extremity1.17 (0.66–2.07)0.6
    Bulbar1.81 (0.99–3.33)0.05
    Respiratory6.52 (2.72–15.60)<0.001