Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of ALS patients who died or had tracheostomy during follow-up compared to those who remained alive without tracheostomy

VariableDeceased or tracheostomy, n = 103Alive without tracheostomy, n = 164Total, n = 267
Values are mean (SD) or %.
* p < 0.05 for the comparison of deceased or tracheostomy vs alive without tracheostomy.
p < 0.05 for the comparison of individual sites of symptom onset adjusting for multiple comparisons.30
‡ Total n = 250.
ALSFRSr = Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale–revised.
Age, y63.3 (13.5)60.7 (12.5)61.7 (12.9)
% Male50.557.354.7
Age at onset, y59.9 (13.6)57.1 (13.1)58.2 (13.3)
Symptom duration, y*1.8 (1.6)2.5 (3.4)2.2 (2.9)
Site of symptom onset*
    Upper extremity20.439.031.8
    Lower extremity38.839.039.0
    Bulbar33.021.325.8
    Respiratory7.80.63.4
Forced vital capacity (% predicted)*60.1 (24.7)79.8 (21.8)72.1 (24.9)
ALSFRSr scores
    Total (range 0–48)*31.7 (7.7)38.7 (7.1)36.0 (8.1)
    Fine motor subscore (range 0–12)*7.0 (3.6)8.9 (2.9)8.1 (3.3)
    Gross motor subscore (range 0–12)*6.1 (3.4)8.1 (3.2)7.3 (3.4)
    Bulbar subscore (range 0–12)*8.6 (3.4)10.3 (2.6)9.6 (3.0)
    Respiratory subscore (range 0–12)*10.1 (2.4)11.5 (1.2)10.9 (1.9)
    Most affected subscore (range 0–12)*4.4 (2.6)6.8 (2.8)5.9 (3.0)